Головна » Статті » 2015 \ №2 (6) » РОЗДІЛ 4. КРИМІНАЛЬНЕ ТА КРИМІНАЛЬНО-ВИКОНАЧЕ ПРАВО, КРИМІНОЛОГІЯ, КРИМІНАЛЬНИЙ ПРОЦЕС

N. Karpinska Criminological Characteristics of Female Juvenile Delinquency in Ukraine

УДК 344.972

N. Karpinska

Criminological Characteristics of Female Juvenile Delinquency in Ukraine

The article is devoted to the analysis of main criminological indicators of female juvenile delinquency (level, coefficients, structure, dynamics, tendencies) for the last period compared to the juvenile delinquency indicators, female crime and crime in general. Organizational and legal security of resocialization of female juvenile prisoners, in our opinion, should be carried out in close connection with the informational and analytical security. Under choice of methods and means of resocialization reliable information on the state, structure, dynamics and determinants of juvenile delinquency in general and female juveniles in particular must be taken into account.

Key words: female minors, state, structure, dynamics, crime.

Presentation of the scientific problem. Art. 39 of the Ukraine Constitution indicates, that an individual, his life and health, honour and dignity, inviolability and security are recognized as the highest social value. This, in return, requires not only continuing legislation and enforcement practice improvement but also planning of effective actions aimed at preventing offences in general, crimes, and at offenders correction and resocialization [1].

It can be affirmed, from the analysis of criminal and criminal-executive sources, that juvenile delinquency is a part of crime in general, though, because of presence of specific peculiarities it is considered to be an independent object of study of criminology.

We share the scholars’ opinion who emphasize that planning of efficient resocialization under conditions of penal institutions is possible only with scientific analysis of the state, structure and dynamics of juvenile delinquency, and with learning of determinants and personality.

So, in the present conditions, an urgent need to improve the system of re-socialization of juveniles sentenced to imprisonment, under conditions of correctional facilities on a new basis, taking into account specific characteristics and particular conditions of their vital activity appeared. One of these special categories of juveniles in connection with social, psychological and biological factors is the category of female juveniles.

The aim of the article is analysis of state, structure and dynamic of female juvenile delinquency in Ukraine.

Analysis of the research and publications. Y. A. Abrasimov, I. G. Bogatyrev, V. K. Gryschuk, I. M. Danshin, S. F. Denysov, O. M. Dzhuzha, A. P. Zakaluk, O. M. Kostenko, I. M. Trubnykov, N. S. Skrynnikova and other scientists  have researched the criminological characteristics of juveniles in due time. However, nowadays, there is no comprehensive study of female juvenile delinquency.

Main content and justification of the study result. Despite the relatively low prevalence of female juvenile delinquency, this phenomenon is a significant danger to the society. It should be mentioned, that as of 2014, according to the data of Ukraine State Penitentiary Service, eight special educational institutions for juvenile males and only one for juvenile females operated in Ukraine. That is, the crime rate of juvenile females is about 1 to 8. Thus, as of the end of 2014, there were 103 females in Melitopol educational colony that is 5,4% of all convicted juveniles [2 p. 36- 38].

Analysis of absolute indicators points out to a suspension of growth rate of delinquency among female juveniles in recent years, however, relative indicators ascertain somewhat different situation

According to statistics of the State Judicial Administration of Ukraine juvenile females were sentenced for the commission of crimes: in 2008 - 686, in 2009 - 667, in 2010 – 885, in 2011 – 815, in 2012 – 790, in 2013 – 740. Thus, the proportion of juvenile females among juvenile prisoners amounted: in 2008 – 6,8 %, in 2009 – 7,8 %, in 2010 –8,1 %, in 2011 – 7,5 %, in 2012 – 7,4 %, in 2013 – 7,2 %.

Investigation of crimes which were committed by female juveniles foresees, firstly, study of basic criminological indicators through which the statistical measurement of criminal manifestation is made.

Several approaches to the determination of criminological indicators exist in literature. Herewith, though authors understand and interpret main indicators in the same way, they often give different terms by the same notion. We distinguished three main types of approaches to the determination of criminal indicators: 1) representatives of the first approach consider level, intensity, dynamic, structure, geography and “price” of the criminal to be the main criminal indicators, that are the subject of statistical measurement; 2) representatives of the second approach, analyzing the characteristics of the main criminological indicators of crime, distinguish level of crime, coefficients of crime, structure of crime (that can be made on the socio-demographic, criminal, legal and criminological grounds), dynamic of crime, “price” of crime; 3) representatives of the third approach distinguish quantitative indicators of crime (level of crime, level of conviction, price of crime, coefficients of crime), qualitative indicators of crime (structure of crime according to the criminal-legal, socio-demographic or criminological indicators, nature of crime, geography of crime), dynamic, state and main tendencies of crime, also absolute indicators of crime, that is absolute numbers, which have particular units of measurement and characterize total generalized  value of the aggregate (quantity of registered crimes, identified offenders, convicted persons etc.) and relative values that allow to correlate two compared values and can be evaluated in different units of measurement (coefficient, per cent etc.) [3, р. 78-90].

It should be mentioned, that in criminological literature relative indicator, namely proportion, also is used. It is measured in percentage and is used to determine quotient of this or that constituent part of occurrence in its general substance or this or that category of occurrences in general quantity of occurrences of certain type.

We agree with N.S. Skrynnikova, that previously mentioned indicators should be used to characterize crimes, committed by female juveniles; to determine their places in the structure of the whole criminality and determine the ratio between juvenile delinquency in general and female juvenile delinquency in particular [7, p. 269].

According to the statistical data of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Prosecutors General’s Office of Ukraine, general indicators as to people who committed crimes are: in 2008 – 207740,  in 2009 – 212090, in 2010 – 226385,  in 2011 – 225517, in 2012 – 224986,  2013 – 224112 [3, p. 78-90].

Dynamic in accordance with given criminality indicators, which is determined in every financial year in comparison with previous year, is as follows: in 2009 – +4350 (+2,1 %), in 2010 – +14295 (+6,7 %), in 2011 – -868 (-0,4 %), in 2012 – -531 (-0,2 %), in 2013 – -874 (-0,4 %).

After analyzing statistical data of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Prosecutors General’s Office of Ukraine as to people who committed crimes we can see, that quantity of female juveniles among all these people count: in 2008 – 1035, in 2009 – 1179, in 2010 – 1320, in 2011 – 1239, in 2012 – 1169, in 2013 – 1038.

Accordingly, we observe the following dynamic under absolute indicators: in 2009 – +144 (+13,9 %), in 2010 – +141 (+12,0 %), in 2011 – -81 (-6,1 %),  in 2012 – -70 (-5,6 %), in 2013 – -131 (-11,2 %).

In comparison, general indicators of juvenile delinquency and female criminality due to the aforesaid period are: in 2008 – 13541, 27419, in 2009 – 12956, 29065, in 2010 – 13950, 31457, in 2011 – 13654, 30489, in 2012 – 13587, 29864, in 2013 – 13316, 28696.

Dynamic as to general quantity of juveniles that committed crimes is as follows: in 2009 – -585 (-4,3 %), in 2010 – + 954 (+7,7 %), in 2011 – -256 (-2,1 %), in 2012 – -67 (-0,5 %), in 2013 – -271 (-2,0 %); as to general quantity of females, who committed crimes: in 2009 – +1646 (+ 6,0 %), in 2010 – +2392 (+8,2 %), in 2011 – -908 (-3,1 %), in 2012 – -625 (-2,0 %), in 2013 – -1168 (-3,9 %).

Trends of criminal behavior of juvenile females clearly reflect general trends, namely: in 2009 against the background of a significant increase in the total number of persons who have committed crimes, the number of juveniles decreases; in 2011 directly proportional increase in the total number of persons who have committed crimes, including females, juveniles and juvenile females can be noticed; in 2012 and 2013 against the background of reducing  number of people according to all indicators, number of female juveniles who committed crimes reduces too.

Approximately the same tendencies were revealed during the study of statistical data as to convicted people. According to statistical data of State Court of Ukraine (appendix ZH) in 2008 – 686 female juveniles were convicted, in 2009 – 667, in 2010 – 885, in 2011 – 815, in 2012 – 790, in 2013 – 740.

Based on absolute figures, the dynamic on convicted juvenile females is: in 2009 – - 19 (-2,8 %), in 2010 – +218 (+32,7 %), in 2011 – -70 (-7,4 %), in 2012 – -25 (-3,1 %) and in 2013in – -50 (-6,3 %).

It is caused by general processes that confirm the total number of convicted persons, convicted juveniles and convicted females. The value under the indicators are as follows: in 2008 – 136780, 10078, 17590, in 2009 – 137828, 8555, 17878, in 2010 – 157891, 10883, 21169, in 2011 – 157124, 10812, 21087, in 2012 – 156842, 10636, 20837, in 2013 – 156422, 10234, 20119.

Dynamic under foregoing indicators is as follows:

– as to general quantity of convicted persons: in 2009 – +1048 (+0,8 %), in 2010 – +20063 (+14,6 %), in 2011 – -767 (-0,5 %), in 2012 – -282 (-0,2 %), in 2013 – -420 (-0,3 %);

– as to general quantity of convicted juveniles: in 2009 – -1523 (-15,1 %), in 2010 – +2328 (+27,2 %), in 2011 – -71 (-0,1 %), in 2012 – -176 (-1,6 %), in 2013 – -402 (-3,8 %);

– as to quantity of convicted females: in 2009 – +288 (+1,6 %), in 2010 – +3291 (+18,4 %), in 2011 – -82 (-0,3 %), in 2012 – -250 (-1,2 %), in 2013 – -718 (-3,4 %).

Tendencies as to convicted female juveniles clearly reflect general tendencies, viz.: from 2011 against a background of decrease in quantity of convicted persons in general and among different categories, quantity of female juveniles decreases. That is, generally, quantity of convicted female juveniles depends on the tendencies, that are typical for criminality in general and for its all components.

For more precise criminological characteristic of common indicators of crime, measurements should be done not only in its absolute but also in relative values, primarily through such as the coefficient of criminal activity of certain categories and specific gravity of this or that population group or criminals in more general certain category.

The coefficient of criminal activity – is the ratio of persons who have committed crimes to the quantity of population on the assumption of beforehand specified  number of people – 10 000, 100, 000, etc. [4, p. 24].

However, in the calculation of any coefficients of crime concerning juveniles, difficulties appear immediately. The difficulties are connected with the fact, that in the official reports as to demographic indexes of the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine there is no foreseen group of the population aged 14-17 years, i.e. juveniles, who have reached the age of criminal responsibility, while accurate data on the number of people in this age group is essential for law enforcement authority as well as for other state bodies and NGOs, that deal with resistance of juvenile delinquency.

In such circumstances, researchers have to determine the age group of 14-17 years by calculation, based on the data presented in official reports.

Thus, calculations made by them [8] indicate that the number of members of the 14-17 years age group during 2005-2010 was continuously decreasing both in absolute and in relative values, During this period, the number of juveniles both male and female in this age group has decreased approximately by 25,4 %. Herewith, the specific gravity of people aged 14-17 years in the total number of population in 2005 was 5,94 %, in 2006 – 5,70 %, in 2007 – 5,42 %, in 2008 – 5,14 %, in 2009 – 4,84 %, in 2010 – 4,56 %. In particular, the specific gravity of male juveniles in this age group among male population in 2005 was 6,59 %, in 2006 – 6,33 %, in 200 – 6,02 %, in 2008 – 5,71 %, in 2009 - 5,38 %, in 2010 – 4,98 %, and the specific gravity of female juveniles in this age group among the female population in 2005 was 5,39%, in 2006 – 5,16 %, in 2007 – 4,91 %, in 2008 – 4,65 %, in 2009 – 4,38 %, in – 4,12 %.

Among women, who committed crimes, the specific gravity of female juveniles amounted in 2005 – 5,4 %, in 2006 – 4,7 %, in 2007 – 4,2 %, in 2008 – 3,8 %, in 2009 – 4,1 %, in 2010 – 4,2 %, and among women prisoners, the specific gravity of female juveniles in 2005 was 5,4 %, in 2006 – 5,1 %, in 2007 – 4,1 %, in 2008 – 3,9 %, in 2009 – 3,7 %, in 2010 – 4,2 %. Made calculations indicate an availability of clear regularity, which lies in directly proportional dependence of criminal activity of female juveniles from criminal activity of the female population.

According to the made research, reduction in the degree of juvenile delinquency in general and of female juveniles in particular has a certain correlative connection with a decrease in the absolute number and the specific gravity of juveniles in general and female juveniles in particular in the general number of population and the general number of female population [9, p. 3-20].

For more detailed criminological characteristics of general indicators of female juvenile criminality, its structure must be considered. Some scientists believe that the structure of the criminality is an attribute that characterizes its internal structure as the ratio between groups (types) of crimes that can be analyzed due to criminal, legal, socio-demographic or criminological criteria [10, p. 40].

Others believe that the structure of criminality means the ratio of a particular type of crime or group of crimes to the total mass of criminality in a given region and in a given period. It determines the share (specific gravity) allocated due to the certain grounds of various categories of criminality. This indicator reveals internal criminality structure. The structure of criminality is expressed in a percentage and characterizes it due to its quality [3, p. 24].

Of course, for perfect criminological characteristics of the structure of criminality on the specified criteria, appropriate statistic data is needed. But if we refer to the official statistic data as to the crimes that are committed by female juveniles, which is reported in MIA (Ministry of Internal Affairs), SJA (State Judicial Administration) and GP (General’s Prosecutor Office) of Ukraine, it is not enough to make full criminological characteristics.

It should be noted that in the official reporting of MIA of Ukraine only data on the total number of female juveniles who committed crimes and their overall distribution by age groups of 14-15 and 16-17 years is available. Data on the types of crimes, committed by female juveniles is not given.

Concerning official statements about convicted juveniles of the State Judicial Administration of Ukraine, only general figures on the types of crimes, felony offences and treasons as to female juveniles are singled out. All other criminal, socio-demographic and criminological indicators on the convicted juveniles are given in general.

Nowadays it is possible to describe the structure of female juvenile delinquency on the basis of the statistical information only with the help of the data of the SJA of Ukraine.

So, most often, female minors were convicted for crimes against property. In total, for such crimes in 2008 – 74,2 % of the total number of convicted females was sentenced, in 2009 – 75,0 %, in 2010 – 86,1 %, in 2011 – 86,6 %, in 2012 – 83,2 %, in 2013 - 81,9 %. In particular, among the crimes against property such crimes as theft, burglary and robbery are the most notable crimes and there were the following number of offenders sentenced respectively, in 2008 – 53,5 %, 12,1 %, 3,6 %; in 2009 – 53,7 %, 13,8 %, 3,6 %; in 2010 – 72,9 %, 8,4 %, 1,5 %; in 2011 – 76,1 %, 8,5 %, 2,1 %; in 2012 – 72,8 %, 8,8 %, 1,7 % in 2013 – 74,1 %, 6,5 %, 1,4 %. Also such crimes are often committed male juveniles [3, p. 78-90].

Thus, the specific gravity of girls among convicted juveniles for these crimes was: among those convicted of crimes against property, in 2008 – 7,1 %, in 2009 – 8,0 %, in 2010 – 8,7 %, in 2011 – 8,8 %, in 2012 – 8,7 %, in 2013 – 8,9 %; among convicted of theft: in 2008 – 8,8 %, in 2009 – 8,0 %, in 2010 – 9,5 , in 2011 – 8,9 %, in 2012, – 9,3 %, in 2013 – 9,4 %;  among those convicted of robbery: in 2008 – 3,9 %, in 2009 – 5,2 %, in 2010 – 5,5 %, in 2011 – 5,7 %, in 2012 – 5,4 %, in 2013 – 5,6 %; among convicted of brigandage, in 2008 – 4,9 %, in 2009 – 5,3 %, in 2010 – 3,3 %, in 2011 – 4,6 %, in 2012 – 5,3 %, in 2013 – 5,1 % [3, p. 78-90].

In 2008 there were 8,7 % of girls convicted of hooliganism, in 2009 – 7,2 %, in 2010 – 3,3 %, in 2011 – 3,9 %, in 2012 – 4,1 %, in 2013 – 5,0 %, while among convicted male juveniles in this type of crime: in 2008 – 4,5 %, in 2009 – 5,7 %, in 2010 – 4,8 %, in 2011 – 6,1 %, in 2012 – 4,8 %, in 2013 – 3,6 % [3, p. 78-90].

A significant number of convicted female juveniles includes convicted of crimes in drug trafficking, namely in 2008 – 6,7 %, in 2009 – 6,4 %, in 2010 – 2,2 %, in 2011 – 2,1 %, in 2012 – 2,9 %, in 2013 – 3,2 % [3, p. 78-90].

Crimes against life and health are less common among convicted female juveniles. In particular, there were convicts for crimes against life, intentional serious bodily injuries and for intentional injuries of medium gravity in 2008 respectively –  0,1 %, 2,9 %, 0,4 %; in 2009 –  1,1 %, 1,1 %, 0,8 %; in 2010 – 0,3 %, 1,9 %, 0,9 %; in 2011 – 0,6 %, 2,5 %, 1,5 %, in 2012 – 0,8 %, 2,7 %, 1,7 %, in 2013 – 0,9 %, 3,2 %, 2,1 % of the total number of convicted female juveniles. Among juveniles convicted of crimes against life and health, the specific gravity of females is much higher than the figures in the structure of their criminality.

Among juveniles convicted of crimes against life, the specific gravity of females in 2008 was 5,5 %, in 2009 – 7,8 %, in 2010 – 3,3 %, in 2011 – 4,5 %, in 2012 – 5,8 %, in 2013 – 6,3 %; among juveniles convicted of causing grievous bodily harm, the proportion of girls in 2008 was 10,1 %, in 2009 – 4,5 %, in 2010 – 12,7 %, in 2011 – 11,1 %, in 2012 – 9,5 %, in 2013 – 8,7 %; among juveniles convicted of intentionally causing bodily injury of medium gravity the proportion of females in 2008 was 2,0%, in 2009 – 4,6 %, in 2010 – 5,7 %, in 2011 – 4,0 %, in 2012 – 3,6 %, in 2013 – 4,9 %.

The least common crime, among female juveniles, from given crimes in reports is misappropriation of a vehicle, for commitment of which in 2008 – 0,6 % was convicted, in 2009 – 1,6 %, in 2010 – 0,2 %, in 2011 – 0,4 %, in 2012 – 0,5 %, in 2013 – 0,2 % of the total number of female juveniles, while the specific gravity of females among convicted juveniles of that crime in 2008 was 0,7 %, in 2009 – 2,0 % , in 2010 – 0,5 %, in 2011 – 1,7 %, in 2012 – 2,2 % ,in 2013 – 2,5 %. That is, the specific gravity of females among juveniles convicted of this crime here is also slightly higher than the indicator in the general structure of conviction of female juveniles [3, p. 78-90].

The average indicators of convictions of female juveniles, in general, for the period 2008-2013 are: for crimes against property 81,2 % of all prisoners were convicted, including theft – 67,2 %, robbery – 9,7 %, brigandage – 2,3 %; for hooliganism – 5,4 %, for illegal drugs – 3,9 %; for crimes against life – 0,8 %; for causing grievous bodily harm – 2,4 %; for causing bodily injury of medium gravity – 1,2 %; for misappropriation of vehicles – 0,6 %. During this period only 0.1 % of female juveniles was sentenced for rape.

In the total number of convicted female juveniles first place is occupied by convicted of theft, then respectively: convicted of robbery, hooliganism, drug traffic, brigandage, grievous bodily harm, bodily injury of medium gravity, crimes against life, misappropriation of vehicles and rape.

For comparison, consider the average indicators of convictions of male juveniles: 77,9 % of the total number of convicts were convicted of crimes against property, including: theft – 49,8 %, robbery – 18,8 %, brigandage – 4, 7 %; of hooliganism – 5,5 %; of drug traffic – 5,2 %; of crimes against life – 0,8 %; of causing grievous bodily harm – 1,9 %; of causing bodily injury of medium gravity – 1,8 %; of misappropriation of vehicles – 5,8 %; rape – 0,9 %.

The total number of convicted male juveniles first place is also occupied by convicted of theft, then respectively: convicted of robbery, misappropriation of a vehicle, hooliganism, drug traffic, brigandage, grievous bodily harm, causing bodily injury of medium gravity, rape, crimes against life.

The specific gravity of female juveniles among juveniles convicted of certain types of crimes is the following: among those convicted of crimes against life – 7,0 %, of causing grievous bodily harm – 8,0 %, of causing bodily injury of medium gravity – 4,8 %, of theft – 8,4 %, of robbery – 4,9 %, of brigandage – 5,0 %, of misappropriation of vehicles – 1,0 %, of hooliganism – 9,6 %, of drug traffic – 6,6 %, of rape – 1,0 %, and the total value of the specific gravity of female minors among convicted juveniles is about 7,1 %.

Thus, female juveniles are the most active among peers when they commit such crimes as hooliganism, theft, grievous bodily harm and crimes against life.

Conclusions and perspectives for further researchs. Considering abovementioned information, we can conclude that juvenile delinquency is a complex historical and systemic occurrence, which has certain characteristics, properties and regularities of development that are not fully studied and require further research and development.

Delinquency of female juveniles, on the one hand as a part of criminality in general, on the other hand as a part of juvenile delinquency, has its specific features that allow considering it as an independent object of study of criminology.

Organizational and legal security of resocialization of female juvenile prisoners, in our opinion, should be carried out in close connection with the informational and analytical security. Under choice of methods and means of resocialization reliable information on the state, structure, dynamics and determinants of juvenile delinquency in general and female juveniles in particular must be taken into account.

Organization of efficient resocialization of female juveniles in educational colonies is possible under the terms of the usage of sound scientific methods and tools. One of the conditions of such justlyness is comprehensive analysis of key indicators of juvenile delinquency (level, structure and dynamics) and features of their personal strain. This knowledge will allow to identify the components of personality that most significantly affect its socially significant actions and activities: needs, interests, hopes and aspirations.

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Карпінська Н. Кримінологічна характеристика злочинності неповнолітніх осіб жіночої статі в Україні. У статті здійснено комплексний аналіз злочинності неповнолітніх осіб жіночої статі, який  передбачає характеристику показників злочинності у порівнянні з показниками злочинності в цілому, а також злочинності неповнолітніх та злочинності жінок. Автор стверджує, що  зниження рівня злочинності неповнолітніх в цілому, і неповнолітніх жіночої статі зокрема, яке спостерігається протягом останніх років має певний кореляційний зв’язок зі зниженням абсолютної кількості та питомої ваги неповнолітніх у цілому та неповнолітніх жіночої статі, зокрема, в загальній кількості населення та загальній кількості населення жіночої статі. Встановлено, що для забезпечення більш точної і повної характеристики основних кримінологічних показників злочинів, що вчинюються неповнолітніми жіночої статі, у подальших дослідженнях необхідно на державному рівні узгодити та вдосконалити статистичну звітність щодо неповнолітніх жіночої статі, яка надається Держкомстатом України, Міністерством внутрішніх справ України та Державною судовою адміністрацією України.

Ключові слова: неповнолітні особи жіночої статі, стан, структура, динаміка,  злочинність.

Карпинская Н. Криминологическая характеристика преступности несовершеннолетних женского пола в Украине. В статье осуществлен комплексный анализ преступности несовершеннолетних женского пола. Он предусматривает характеристику показателей этой разновидности преступности по сравнению с показателями преступности в целом, а также преступности несовершеннолетних и преступности женщин. Это дает основания автору утверждать, что снижение уровня преступности несовершеннолетних в целом и несовершеннолетних женского пола в частности, которое наблюдается в  течение последних лет, имеет определенну корреляционну связь со снижением абсолютного количества и удельного веса несовершеннолетних в целом и несовершеннолетних женского пола в частности в общей численности населения и общей численности населения женского пола. Установлено, что для обеспечения более точной и полной характеристики основных криминологических показателей преступлений, совершаемых несовершеннолетними женского пола в дальнейших исследованиях необходимо на государственном уровне согласовать и усовершенствовать статистическую отчетность в отношении несовершеннолетних женского пола, предоставляемую Госкомстатом Украины, Министерством внутренних дел Украины и Государственной судебной администрацией Украины.

Ключевые слова: несовершеннолетние женского пола, состояние, структура, динамика, преступность.

© Karpinska N., 2015

Категорія: РОЗДІЛ 4. КРИМІНАЛЬНЕ ТА КРИМІНАЛЬНО-ВИКОНАЧЕ ПРАВО, КРИМІНОЛОГІЯ, КРИМІНАЛЬНИЙ ПРОЦЕС | Додав: event (22.12.2015)
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